中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(19) 5144-5151

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荆芥和荆芥穗的本草考证
Textual research of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica

刘信丹;张英;吴孟华;马志国;曹晖;
LIU Xin-dan;ZHANG Ying;WU Meng-hua;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;Lingnan Research Centre of Traditional Materia Medica, Jinan University;College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;

摘要(Abstract):

荆芥和荆芥穗是临床常用的疏风解表药。通过对荆芥和荆芥穗的本草典籍梳理及考证,明确二者的药用部位分离历史,并对比两者的炮制历史沿革、性味归经、功能主治、用法用量及饮片选用,为临床应用提供本草依据。经考证,早期本草以荆芥全草入药,自宋代《本草图经》开始有荆芥地上部分全草和花穗2个药用部位分离入药的记载,且部分本草强调仅用花穗入药。二者的入药分离不仅满足了临床用药的不同需求,而且充分体现出中药资源合理开发利用的观念。荆芥和荆芥穗在历代本草中的炮制方法约有十余种,均以生用和炒炭为主流饮片规格并沿用至今,其中荆芥生用有切段的要求,荆芥穗生用则强调净制,二者制炭需存性。荆芥和荆芥穗性味归经及功效大体一致,均味辛、苦,性温,归肺、肝经,兼入气分和血分;二者功能主治均包括解表散风、理血止血、透疹消疮和消食醒酒等,惟荆芥穗效用更佳。古代医方中,荆芥和荆芥穗在用法用量以及配伍方面差异不大,生品和炭品用法用量亦大体一致,但在临床配伍方面侧重点不同。荆芥和荆芥穗的生品及炭品在临床均有广泛应用,不同饮片规格在功效和临床应用方面各有侧重,临床入药应正确处理,区别对待。
Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are well-known Chinese herbal medicines for wind dispersing and exterior releasing. Through textual research on Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica, the discrimination of their medicinal parts in history was clarified, and the processing, the property(nature and flavor), meridian tropism, functions, indications, usage, dosage, and the selection of decoction pieces were compared to provide the basis for clinical application. As a result, the whole herb of Schizonepeta tenuifolia was used as medicine in the early records. The aerial part and the dried spike of S. tenuifolia were used as medicines separately in the Song Dynasty, which was recorded in the Atlas of Materia Medica(Ben Cao Tu Jing). Some ancient classics emphasized that only the dried spike could be used as medicine. The separation of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica meets the different needs of clinical medication and supports the concept of rational development and utilization of Chinese medicine resources. About ten processing methods for Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica have been recorded since ancient times, and raw and charred drugs were the major products. Raw Schizonepetae Herba is required to be used in sections, whereas raw Schizonepetae Spica in clean preparation. Both charred products should avoid scorching. Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are similar in the property(pungent, bitter, and warm), meridian tropism(lung and liver meridians, as well as qi and blood aspects), and functions(releasing exterior, dispersing wind, regulating and stopping blood, promoting eruption, dispelling sores, promoting digestion, eliminating alcohol effect, etc.), but Schizonepetae Spica is superior in efficacy. For Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica in traditional Chinese medicinal prescriptions, the raw and charred products are similar in usage and dosage, while their focuses in clinical compatibility vary. The raw and charred products of Schizonepetae Herba and Schizonepetae Spica are widely applied clinically. Decoction pieces of different specifications can result in different efficacies and clinical applications, so medication should be performed with caution.

关键词(KeyWords): 荆芥;荆芥穗;生品;炭品;本草考证
Schizonepetae Herba;Schizonepetae Spica;raw products;charred products;textual research

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 第六批全国老中医药专家学术经验继承项目(国中医药人教发[2017]29号);; 国家药典委员会药品标准制修订研究课题(2018Z006)

作者(Author): 刘信丹;张英;吴孟华;马志国;曹晖;
LIU Xin-dan;ZHANG Ying;WU Meng-hua;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;Lingnan Research Centre of Traditional Materia Medica, Jinan University;College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;

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