中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(11) 2694-2701

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薏苡仁炮制历史沿革考证
Historical evolution of Coicis Semen processing methods

周宇;吴孟华;罗思敏;黄子韩;张英;马志国;曹晖;徐葱茏;
ZHOU Yu;WU Meng-hua;LUO Si-min;HUANG Zi-han;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;XU Cong-long;Xiaotao Wang Processing Inheritance Studio in Guangdong Branch, Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan (Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;Jiangxi Jingde Chinese Traditional Medicine Co., Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

薏苡仁作为药食两用的原料在民间被广泛使用。通过查阅历代本草专著及各省市炮制规范等相关文献资料,从薏苡仁采收加工、历代炮制方法及性味功效进行梳理,对其炮制方法的历史沿革进行考证。结果表明,本草记载薏苡仁的炮制方法主要有清炒、糯米炒、盐制(含盐水煮和盐炒)、壁土炒和姜汁拌炒等。其中,清炒、壁土炒沿用至今,麸炒是现代结合实际情况和适应时代需求,在糯米炒的基础上改进所得;并且,现代各地方炮制规范中将古代取仁法列入炮制步骤,与炒制结合,形成"法制"炮制法。2015年版《中国药典》记载薏苡仁有利水渗湿,健脾止泻,排脓,解毒散结等功效,内容与历代本草所载一致;法制后的薏苡仁已祛除其寒凉之性,性味归经发生变化,应用范围扩大。研究结果厘清了薏苡仁的采制与炮制历史脉络,并总结整理了古今薏苡仁的性味与功效,为薏苡仁后续规范炮制工艺、各炮制品临床合理运用,及药材资源的进一步开发和利用提供了历史依据。
Coicis Semen is widely used as a raw material which can be used as both medicine and food among people. According to the ancient monographs on materia medica and relevant documents on the processing specifications in various provinces and cities, herba logical study on the historical evolution of the processing methods of Coicis Semen was conducted in this paper from the aspects of collecting and processing methods of Coicis Semen, the processing methods in the past dynasties and the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Coicis Semen recorded in monographs on materia medica mainly included stir-frying, glutinous rice stir-frying, salt processing(including salt cooking and salt stir-frying), stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east, and ginger juice stir-frying, etc. Among them, stir-frying, and stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east are still used nowadays. The bran stir-frying is the improved version of glutinous rice stir-frying in order to be adaptive to the modern-day situation and the needs of the present. In addition, the ancient shell removal and kernel keeping method are also included in the processing procedures in modern local processing specifications, which are combined with frying to form a new method named "Fazhi" processing( "Fazhi" means a processing method of multiple procedures). The 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia records that Coicis Semen is helpful to clear dampness and promote diuresis, strengthen the spleen and prevent diarrhea, eliminate impediment, discharge pus, resolve toxin and a mass, etc., which are consistent with those contained in ancient monographs on materia medica. After the "Fazhi" processing, the cold nature of Coicis Semen has been removed and its nature,flavour and meridian tropism have been changed, so its application scopes expanded. The results of this study clearly traced the history of the collecting and proces-sing of Coicis Semen, summarized the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen contained in both ancient and modern literature, and provided a historical basis for the standardization of the subsequent processing technology of Coicis Semen, the clinical application of various processed products, and the further development and utilization of medicinal materials.

关键词(KeyWords): 薏苡仁;采制;炮制;法薏苡仁;历史沿革;考证
Coicis Semen;collecting method;processing method;Coicis Semen Praeparatum;historical evolution;herbalogical study

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家食品药品监督管理总局保健食品审评中心保健食品功能目录研究专项(ZBW-2018-BJ-03)

作者(Author): 周宇;吴孟华;罗思敏;黄子韩;张英;马志国;曹晖;徐葱茏;
ZHOU Yu;WU Meng-hua;LUO Si-min;HUANG Zi-han;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;XU Cong-long;Xiaotao Wang Processing Inheritance Studio in Guangdong Branch, Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan (Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;Jiangxi Jingde Chinese Traditional Medicine Co., Ltd.;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200328.306

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