中国中药杂志

2015, v.40(02) 198-203

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台湾翅果菊有性生殖与胚胎发育形态研究
Studies on sexual organs and embryological development morphology of Pterocypsela formosana

龙华;马雪妮;黄衡宇;
LONG Hua;MA Xue-ni;HUANG Heng-yu;Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Utilization,Jishou University,College of Hunan Province;Engineering Research Center for Reproducing Fine Varieties of Chinese Medicinal Plants,Yunnan University of Chinese Traditional Medicine;

摘要(Abstract):

利用切片技术对台湾翅果菊Pterocypsela formosana胚胎发育过程进行了显微观察。研究结果表明,花药4室,药壁发育为双子叶型,由表皮、药室内壁、中层和绒毡层4层细胞组成,腺质绒毡层;小孢子母细胞减数分裂为同时型,四分体主要为四面体型,成熟花粉为2-细胞型。子房下位,2心皮,1室,单胚珠,基生胎座;单珠被,倒弯生胚珠,具发达的珠被绒毡层;大孢子孢原细胞直接发育为大孢子母细胞,属薄珠心类型;大孢子细胞减数分裂形成直线形4分体,仅合点端1个发育为功能大孢子,功能大孢子经3次连续的有丝分裂形成7细胞8核的成熟雌配子体,雌配子体发育方式为蓼型。2个极核在受精前融合为次生核,合点端反足细胞短命,形成后不久即退化消失。珠孔受精,属有丝分裂前类型;初生胚乳核早于合子分裂,胚乳发育为核型,具胚乳吸器;胚胎发育为紫菀型菊苣变型,早期发达的胚柄对胚的发育具重要意义。
In this study,the embryological characters of Pterocypsela formosana( Asteraceae) were investigated with the traditional paraffin section methods. The anther has 4 sporangiates,the anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and comprises of an epidermis,endothelium,a middle layer and a single-layered tapetum,the tapetum belongs to glandular type. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells is of the simultaneous type,for the formation of mostly tetrahedral tetrad,the mature pollen grains are 2 celled. The ovary is bicarpellate,unilocular,one ovule and basal placenta,the ovule is unitegmic,tenuinucellate,inverted campylotropous and with developed endothelium,archesporial cell of megaspore differentiates immediately below the nucellar epidermis and functions as megasporocyte after development and belongs to tenuinucellate ovule type. The megasporocyte undergoes meitotic to form a liner tetrad,only one chalazal megaspore becomes the functional megaspore which forms female gametophyte including 7-celled and 8-nucleated after three successive mitosis,the female gametophyte is of the Polygonum type. Two polar nuclei melt into a secondary nuclei before fertilization,the chalazal antipodal cells are ephemeral and degenerate shortly after forming. Fertilization is porogamous and belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than the zygote,the endosperm is of the nuclear type with the presence of haustoria,and the embryogeny belongs to asterad type chicory variant. The developed suspensor on early stage has important significance to the embryo development.

关键词(KeyWords): 台湾翅果菊;胚胎学;菊科;生态适应
Pterocypsela formosana;embryology;Asteraceae;ecological adaptation

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(31260077);; 湖南省重点学科建设项目(JSU071301)

作者(Authors): 龙华;马雪妮;黄衡宇;
LONG Hua;MA Xue-ni;HUANG Heng-yu;Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Utilization,Jishou University,College of Hunan Province;Engineering Research Center for Reproducing Fine Varieties of Chinese Medicinal Plants,Yunnan University of Chinese Traditional Medicine;

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