中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(08) 1920-1926

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生态因子对人参外形和皂苷类成分的影响
Effects of ecological factors on shape and ginsenoside of Panax ginseng

马文琪;王红阳;张文晋;王升;万修福;康传志;郭兰萍;
MA Wen-qi;WANG Hong-yang;ZHANG Wen-jin;WANG Sheng;WAN Xiu-fu;KANG Chuan-zhi;GUO Lan-ping;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Hubei University of Chinese Medicine;

摘要(Abstract):

生态环境与道地药材的生长发育和品质形成有着密切的联系。人参对自然环境的要求非常严格,多生长在森林多生的阴湿山谷中,不同生长环境下的人参外形及化学成分差异很大。该文综述了不同生态因子(包括光照、温度、海拔、水分、土壤因子等)对人参外形及化学成分(主要为人参皂苷类成分)的影响,通过系统梳理总结发现,土壤物理因子是影响人参外形较为重要的生态因子,其中土壤容重起着关键作用;温度为影响人参药材中人参皂苷类成分积累的主导生态因子;强光照、高海拔、高土壤水分、低土壤养分、强酸性土壤等均能影响人参化学成分的积累。环境胁迫也能刺激药用植物次生代谢产物的形成与积累,适当的低温胁迫,高或低水分胁迫,酸或碱胁迫也能促进人参中人参皂苷类成分的积累。该文对影响人参外形和化学成分积累的生态因子进行了系统综述,明确人参外形和品质形成的主导生态因子和限制因子以及有益的环境胁迫因子,以期为人参生态种植和人参品质提升提供理论依据。
The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng′s appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.

关键词(KeyWords): 人参;生态因子;土壤因子;次生代谢产物;环境胁迫
Panax ginseng;ecological factors;soil factor;secondary metabolites;environmental stresses

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(81891014);; 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1700701);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-21);; 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(ZZ13-YQ-096)

作者(Author): 马文琪;王红阳;张文晋;王升;万修福;康传志;郭兰萍;
MA Wen-qi;WANG Hong-yang;ZHANG Wen-jin;WANG Sheng;WAN Xiu-fu;KANG Chuan-zhi;GUO Lan-ping;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Hubei University of Chinese Medicine;

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210123.102

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