中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(24) 6331-6342

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澜沧江-湄公河流域传统医药知识研究——以澜沧拉祜族自治县为例
Traditional medicinal knowledge in Lancang-Mekong River:a case study in Lancang Lahu autonomous county

杨久云;龙春林;
YANG Jiu-yun;LONG Chun-lin;Pu′er National Traditional Medicine Research Institute;College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China;Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas, State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Minzu University of China;Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine, Ministry of Education, Minzu University of China;

摘要(Abstract):

该文以澜沧江-湄公河流域的澜沧拉祜族自治县为研究地域,调查和分析该区域的传统医药知识,并与澜沧江-湄公河流域部分国家进行比较。前期研究表明,这一区域内药物资源丰富、种类繁多,但是对传统医药知识的报道非常少。该研究历经6年,采用关键人物访谈等实地调查方法发现,澜沧县拥有十分丰富的传统医药知识和药材资源,其中植物药达到67科121种;民间传统药物知识多样,该研究收集、整理了民间药方220个;传统知识通过口传身授传承。调查研究表明:用药和配方大多简单,药材加工与使用方法均简单易行,用药以鲜药为主;当地传统医药知识仍然停留在经验用药的层面,对活性成分的研究不多;传承方式保守,其过程中缺少相应的文字与文化作为支撑,诸多传统医药知识存续面临危机甚至已经消失;民间医生各自凭自学或祖传经验积累自成派系,治病经验多寡不一,安全性和有效性应得到重视;民间医生使用的药物种类多,但药物使用缺乏规范和标准;针对传承发展中存在的问题,提出了相应的保护和传承策略。
Lancang Lahu autonomous county, where the Lancang-Mekong River flows by, was selected as the case site to investigate the traditional medicinal knowledge(TMK). A comparison of TMK between Lancang county and other places in the Lancang-Mekong sub-region was conducted. Research on TMK has been seldom reported although there are abundant medicinal resources in this sub-region. The key informant interview and other methods have been adopted in the field surveys in the past six years. The investigation revealed that there was rich TMK and various herbal medicine resources in Lancang county. A total of 220 folk prescriptions have been collected, which were normally simple with easy processing methods and usages, and most raw materials were freshly used. As for medicinal plants, 121 species in 67 families have been documented. Other findings included that TMK in Lancang county was remained at the level of medication based on experience only. The processing methods of herbal medicines were simple and the bioactive ingredients were not clear. Without text and cultural support for self-teaching, coupled with conservative inheritance, it resulted in massive losses of TMK. The folk doctors have accumulated their factions based on self-study or ancestral experience. There was different treatment experience among folk doctors, but the safety and effectiveness should be paid attention to. The folk doctors used various herbal medicines, but there was a lack of standards or specifications for quality control. Given the problems existing in inheritance and development, conservation strategies were proposed in the present study.

关键词(KeyWords): 澜沧江-湄公河流域;传统医药知识;药用植物;民间验方;澜沧县
Lancang-Mekong River;traditional medicinal knowledge(TMK);medicinal plants;folk prescriptions;Lancang county

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(31761143001,31870316);; 生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);; 中央民族大学交叉学科研究专项(2020MDJC03)

作者(Author): 杨久云;龙春林;
YANG Jiu-yun;LONG Chun-lin;Pu′er National Traditional Medicine Research Institute;College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China;Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas, State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Minzu University of China;Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine, Ministry of Education, Minzu University of China;

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