中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(18) 4865-4874

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橘红与化橘红采制、炮制及功效的古今演变探析
Herbalogical study on historical evolution of collection, processing and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium

钟楚楚;吴孟华;余品皓;李锋;张英;马志国;谢超杰;曹晖;
ZHONG Chu-chu;WU Meng-hua;YU Pin-hao;LI Feng;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;XIE Chao-jie;CAO Hui;Lingnan Branch of National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Trational Chinese Medicine of Lingnan (Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;Huazhou Pummelo Peel Medical Materials Development Co., Ltd.;Market Supervision Administration of Huazhou City;

摘要(Abstract):

古代橘红基原经历了橘及其栽培变种、柚及其特异性变种化州柚的品种延续与变迁,前者为橘类橘红,后者为柚类橘红,橘红在清朝以前以橘类橘红为主,清及以后,以化州柚为代表的柚类橘红脱颖而出。1949年以后,由于化州柚产地遭到破坏,不得已以普通柚补充,柚与化州柚从此于《中国药典》中共同列为化橘红的基原,前者称光橘红,后者称毛橘红。该文从采制、炮制及功效角度,梳理橘红的历史应用情况。考证发现,(1)柚类橘红原植物经历了"果实成熟时采收"至"未成熟时采收"的转变。橘红的采收加工方法于宋·苏颂《本草图经》中首次记载,至明清时期,橘类橘红强调去白需极净,而毛橘红则加工成不同规格(七爪、五爪、象眼块等),民国时期,出现化州柚幼果的加工工艺。(2)橘红的炮制方法最早于《雷公炮炙论》中出现,首次使用鲤鱼皮制,考证推测鲤鱼皮制有助于橘红消骨哽。宋金元时期出现焙制、炒制及盐制橘红,明清时期出现蜜、土、姜汁、白矾作为橘红的炮制辅料。其中橘类橘红以盐制为主,盐制毛橘红则较为少见,原因或为前者需盐以辅助下气,而后者自身下气消痰能力极强,无需盐制。炒制、蜜炙的炮制方法有助于降低毛橘红的峻烈之性。(3)从橘红的功效应用历史梳理可知,橘红的药用价值于汉唐萌芽,宋金元发展,明清成熟。毛橘红的应用历史从明清伊始,如今在新冠肺炎治疗中发挥了重要作用。从药性考证可知,光橘红性寒,毛橘红性温、峻,两者药性不同,不宜继续将柚、化州柚同列为化橘红基原,目前化州柚已具备一定的生产规模,建议下一版《中国药典》将化橘红仅收载来自化州柚者。该考证结果有助于橘红、化橘红的进一步开发利用,为化橘红及其炮制品的合理运用提供数据支持。
In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis ′Tomentosa′), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei′s Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis ′Tomentosa′.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.

关键词(KeyWords): 橘红;化橘红;采制;炮制;功效;考证
Citri Exocarpium Rubrum;Citri Grandis Exocarpium;collection;processing;efficacy;herbalogical study

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划“中医药现代化研究”专项(2019YFC1711500);; 第六批全国老中医药专家学术经验继承项目(176-2017-XMZC-0166-01);; 广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2020B1111110005)

作者(Author): 钟楚楚;吴孟华;余品皓;李锋;张英;马志国;谢超杰;曹晖;
ZHONG Chu-chu;WU Meng-hua;YU Pin-hao;LI Feng;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;XIE Chao-jie;CAO Hui;Lingnan Branch of National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Research Center for Trational Chinese Medicine of Lingnan (Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;Huazhou Pummelo Peel Medical Materials Development Co., Ltd.;Market Supervision Administration of Huazhou City;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210622.101

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