中国中药杂志

2017, v.42(12) 2284-2290

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中药材残留农药情况分析及其标准研制的思考
Situation analysis and standard formulation of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines

杨婉珍;康传志;纪瑞锋;周利;王升;李振浩;马忠华;郭兰萍;
YANG Wan-zhen;KANG Chuan-zhi;JI Rui-feng;ZHOU Li;WANG Sheng;LI Zhen-hao;MA Zhong-hua;GUO Lan-ping;The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica-Infinitus(China)Joint Laboratory Herbs Quality Research;School of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Capital Medical University;Zhejiang Shouxiangu Institute of Rare Plant Medicine;Infinitus(China)Company Lt

摘要(Abstract):

《中国药典》规定了中药材中9种农药残留的限量标准,而生产中使用农药数量远远大于这个数目,正是标准的缺失导致无法判断中药材中残留农药超标的真实情况。该研究检索了140篇文献中的7 089条中药材农药含量数据,以目前被广泛接受且在全球很多国家应用的《欧洲药典》的70种农药残留标准对中药材残留农药超标情况进行分析。结果显示,(1)170种中药材有33种存在超标现象,而白术、薄荷、浙贝等137种中药材中农药残留均未超标。在收集的残留农药测定数据中,总超标率为1.72%,其中机氯类农药平均超标率为2.26%,有机磷类农药平均超标率为1.51%,拟除虫菊酯类农药平均超标率为0.37%。(2)各种农药平均超标率为2.00%,残留农药超标率在5%以上的共4种农药,占比8.33%;超标率1%~5%的共9种农药,占比18.75%;超标率小于1%的共6种农药,占比12.5%。其余29种农残均未超标,占比为60.42%。由此看来,绿色和平组织的报道在一定程度上夸大了中药材农药残留超标情况,但当前中药材农药残留问题仍值得关注。建议修订《中国药典》农药残留标准,在保留已有农残种类的基础上,增加中药材农业生产中实际大量应用的农药种类,加强中药材残留农残的系统研究,为保证中药材安全,促进中药材进出口贸易打下基础。
Chinese Pharmacopoeia provides nine pesticide Maximum Residual Limits(MRLs) of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs),The number of pesticides used in production are far more than those listed in pharmacopoeia.The lack of the standards make it's hard to reflect the real situation of pesticide residues in TCMs correctly.The paper is aimed to analyze the data of pesticide residues in TCMs from 7 089 items in 140 reports,and judging the exceedance rate of pesticides in TCMs using the MRLs of European pharmacopoeia,which is widely accepted in many countries.The results show that:(1)Pesticide residues in 18 kinds of TCMs are higher than MRLs,while in 137 kinds are below MRLs,such as Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma,Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus.The average exceedance rate of all TCMs is 1.72%.The average exceedance rates of organochlorine,organophosphorus and pyrethroid are 2.26%,1.51%,0.37%,respectively.(2)The average exceedance rate of pesticides is 2.00%,and the exceedance rate is more than 5%,accounting for 8.33%,the exceedance rate is between 1%-5%,accounting for 18.75%.the exceedance rate is between 0%-1%,accounting for 18.75%.The remaining 29 kinds of pesticides were not exceeded,accounting for60.42%.Some reports like Greenpeace's organization exaggerated the pesticide residues in TCMs.But the pesticide residue question is still worthy of attention,so we proposed to amend the Chinese Pharmacopoeia pesticide residues standards,to increase the pesticide species of traditional Chinese medicine in production on the basis of retaining the existing types of pesticide residues,to strengthen the system research of pesticide residues in TCMs,providing a basis for making standard and promoting import and export trade in TCMs.

关键词(KeyWords): 中药材;残留农药;标准
traditional Chinese medicine;pesticide residue;standard

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 国家科技部“国家质量基础的共性关键研究与应用”重点专项(2016YFF0202802);; 发改委标准化项目(ZYBZH-C-HLJ-17,ZYBZH-C-GD-07);; 中国中医科学院重点领域科研课题(ZZ10-27)

作者(Author): 杨婉珍;康传志;纪瑞锋;周利;王升;李振浩;马忠华;郭兰萍;
YANG Wan-zhen;KANG Chuan-zhi;JI Rui-feng;ZHOU Li;WANG Sheng;LI Zhen-hao;MA Zhong-hua;GUO Lan-ping;The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica-Infinitus(China)Joint Laboratory Herbs Quality Research;School of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Capital Medical University;Zhejiang Shouxiangu Institute of Rare Plant Medicine;Infinitus(China)Company Lt

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2017.0108

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