中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(19) 5123-5129

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民族医药经典名方文献整理和挖掘的方法与要点
Methods and key points of literature collation and mining of classic prescriptions in ethnic medicine

丁侃;成莉;扎巴;包乌恩奇;张丽君;谢雁鸣;
DING Kan;CHENG Li;ZHA Ba;BAO Wu-en-qi;ZHANG Li-jun;XIE Yan-ming;Institute for Chinese Medical History and Literature, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Qinghai Institute of Tibetan Medicine;Inner Mongolia Medical University;Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

摘要(Abstract):

对民族医药文献进行系统整理挖掘,是筛选和考证经典名方的关键性基础工作。该文针对其中所涉及的方源考证、文字互译与医学术语对应、药物基原考证、剂量考证等关键问题展开讨论。认为民族医药经典名方的文献整理和挖掘工作,可以借鉴中医经典名方考证的方法和经验,但同时存在诸多民族医药特有的突出问题,(1)方源考证更要关注其他医学体系传统医学文献,例如印度医学文献是许多藏族医药经典名方的来源,伊本·西那《医学法典》是许多维吾尔族医、回族医经典名方的来源,古印度众多佛教典籍是许多傣族医经典名方的来源。(2)不同语言体系下医学术语的互译与对照,需要语言学家、史学家与医药学家合作,结合史学、历史语言学和医理临床实践研究的方法,运用跨语言对勘法。近年来民族医药经典文献译注本大量出版,各民族医学术语标准相继发布,即是相关研究成果的体现。(3)药物基原考证方面,需要注意两点,一是同一药物在不同民族医学体系下均入药,但药性认识和用药部位有所差异;二是同一药名在不同民族医学体系中基原有差异;(4)剂量考证方面,由于部分民族医药经典名方来源于其他医学体系,因此会涉及不同度量衡体系。另外某些民族文献中并不详细记载用量,因此依赖临床实践、专家共识以确立剂量标准。
The systematic collation and mining of ethnic medicine literature is the key to the screening and textual research of classic prescriptions. This study focused on the textual research of such key issues as the source of prescriptions, the translation of minority languages into Chinese characters and their corresponding medical terms, the original plants of drugs, and the standard dosage. It is believed that the methods and experience of textual research of classic prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) can be utilized by the ethnic medicine. At the same time, the prominent problems unique to ethnic medicine cannot be neglected.(1)Attention should be paid to extraterritorial traditional medical literature in the textual research of the source of prescriptions. For instance, Indian medical literature is the source of many classic prescriptions in Tibetan medicine, Ibn Sina′s Canon of Medicine the source of those in Uygur and Hui medicine, and ancient Indian Buddhist classics the source of those in Dai medicine.(2)The translation and comparison of medical terms in different language systems requires the cooperation of linguists, historians, and medical experts, the combination of historical research, historical linguistics and clinical research methods, and the use of cross-language comparison. In recent years, the related research achievements like multiple translated and annotated versions of classical literature in ethnic medicine and their respective terminology standards have been constantly emerging.(3)In textual research of the original plants of drugs, the following two points deserve attention: one is that the same drug is used in different ethnic medical systems, but there are differences in the understanding of drug properties and active parts; the other is that the original plants of the same drug vary in different ethnic medical systems.(4)The derivation of some classic prescriptions in ethnic medicine from foreign classics results in the difference among measurement systems. In addition, the detailed dosage fails to be covered in some ethnic literature, so the dosage standard should be determined depending on clinical practice and expert consensus.

关键词(KeyWords): 民族医药;经典名方;文献整理;方源考证;药物基原
ethnic medicine;classic prescription;literature collation;prescription source research;original plants of drug

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 中国民族医药学会项目(2020ZY378-130101);; 中国中医科学院基本科研业务费专项(ZZ120501);; 国家社会科学基金重大项目(20&ZD222)

作者(Author): 丁侃;成莉;扎巴;包乌恩奇;张丽君;谢雁鸣;
DING Kan;CHENG Li;ZHA Ba;BAO Wu-en-qi;ZHANG Li-jun;XIE Yan-ming;Institute for Chinese Medical History and Literature, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Qinghai Institute of Tibetan Medicine;Inner Mongolia Medical University;Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

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