中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(21) 5296-5303

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乳香的本草考证
Herbalogical study on olibanum(Ruxiang)

黄子韩;吴孟华;罗思敏;周宇;张英;马志国;曹晖;
HUANG Zi-han;WU Meng-hua;LUO Si-min;ZHOU Yu;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Lingnan Resources Branch,Xiaotao WANG Processing Inheritance Studio in Guangdong Branch, Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;

摘要(Abstract):

乳香是外来药物的代表性品种之一,早在秦汉之际已有传入。乳香入药以"薰陆香"一名始载于《名医别录》。该文通过梳理历代本草古籍,对乳香的古今基原变迁、采收与品质、炮制沿革、功效主治等进行考证。结果发现,唐之前所用乳香为漆树科乳香黄连木Pistacia lenticus树皮渗出的树脂,而后随着海上丝绸之路的兴盛,阿拉伯的乳香树Boswellia carterii及其同属近缘植物渐渐成为了乳香的主流来源植物。古代乳香采收是在春夏两季割伤树皮采脂,并以透明度及形状判断其品质。乳香的炮制历经一系列的演变,从单纯的研、炒到水飞、酒研等,现代炮制则以清炒与醋制为主。乳香的历代用途包括炼丹,民间及宗教熏香,洗浴美容、药用。由于香药贸易的兴盛及乳香在伤科的良好疗效,宋代以后乳香的应用逐渐以药用为主。其药用功效古今差异不大,主要为活血定痛、消肿生肌等,但补精益气等部分功效,现代少有提及。该文的考证结果厘清了乳香从品种、炮制,到功能主治等多方面的历史沿革,可对乳香的进一步开发利用提供历史依据。
As a representative foreign medicinal material, olibanum(Ruxiang) was imported to China since the Qin and Han Dynasties. Olibanum was first described as a medicinal by the name "Xunluxiang" in Miscellaneous Records of Famous Physicians(Ming Yi Bie Lu). This study investigated historical records on olibanum and conducted the herbalogical study. It was found that olibanum came from the resin mainly obtained from the bark of Pistacia lenticus before the Tang Dynasty. With the prosperity of the Maritime Silk Road, instead, the resin obtained from the bark of Boswellia carterii was mainly used as olibanum. In ancient time, the oleo-gum-resin secreted from the cut bark was collected in spring and summer, and the quality was judged based on transparency and shape. The processing methods of olibanum went through many evolutions, which changed from simple methods such as grinding and frying to complex methods such as levigating and grinding with wine, and now to frying and processing with vinegar. The usage of olibanum included alchemy, folk and religious incense, bathing, cosmetic and medicinal since ancient times. From the Song Dynasty, olibanum had been mainly used as medicinal because of its good effect to treat wounds. In traditional Chinese medicine, olibanum unblocks menstruation, relieves pain and reduces swelling and generated muscles. The medicinal efficacy of olibanum is not much different from ancient to modern. Only the efficacy of replenishing energy and promoting the movement of Qi was rarely mentioned in modern reference. In this article, the historical evolutions of olibanum about original plants, processing and medicinal efficacy were sorted out. The results could provide historical basis for the further development and clinical utilization of olibanum.

关键词(KeyWords): 乳香;本草考证;炮制;功效;历史沿革;外来药物
olibanum(Ruxiang);herbalogical study;processing;medicinal efficacy;history evolution;foreign medicinal material

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 第六批全国老中医药专家学术经验继承项目(176-2017-XMZC-0166-01);; 广东省自然科学基金项目(2020A151501577)

作者(Author): 黄子韩;吴孟华;罗思敏;周宇;张英;马志国;曹晖;
HUANG Zi-han;WU Meng-hua;LUO Si-min;ZHOU Yu;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Lingnan Resources Branch,Xiaotao WANG Processing Inheritance Studio in Guangdong Branch, Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), College of Pharmacy, Jinan University;

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200721.101

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