中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(10) 2464-2472

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阿胶历史沿革考
Herbalogical study of Colla Corii Asini(Ejiao)

张金聚;张英;孟江;吴孟华;马志国;夏敏;付改玲;曹晖;
ZHANG Jin-ju;ZHANG Ying;MENG Jiang;WU Meng-hua;MA Zhi-guo;XIA Min;FU Gai-ling;CAO Hui;College of Pharmacy, Jinan University/Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), Jinan University, National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Lingnan Resources Branch;School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University;Inner Mongolia Gen-incept Biological Medicine Technology Co., Ltd., National Engineering Research C

摘要(Abstract):

阿胶是我国特有的名贵中药,有"补血圣药"之称。该文通过系统查阅历代本草典籍和现代文献,对阿胶的名称、基原、加工炮制、功能主治、临床应用等历史沿革进行梳理与考证。阿胶的药用记载最早可追溯至《神农本草经》,其异名包括驴皮胶、盆覆胶、傅致胶等;随着朝代的更迭,阿胶的原料经历了以下几个阶段的演变:牛皮为主—牛皮、驴皮混用—驴皮为主—驴皮,阿胶的制作原料由最初的牛皮为主更迭为驴皮,探究驴皮胶取代牛皮胶的深层次原因主要有两方面,一是与各历史时期的社会因素密切相关;二是对牛皮胶与驴皮胶功效的认识发生了很大改变,进而影响到临床应用。阿胶的加工炮制方法同样经历了不断的演变和发展,阿胶在唐代以前主要采用炙和炒的方法,在此基础上发展了熬和蒸,以及炒时加用辅料的方法,如宋朝的"蛤粉炒"、清朝的"蒲黄炒"等,辅料的加入进一步丰富了阿胶的炮制理论和炮制方法,大大增强了其补血养血、疏肝调肝、益气清肺的功效。因此阿胶的应用也变得更加丰富,其临床应用的广泛性和有效性从历代医案尤其是清宫医案中,可以看到翔实的记录。
Colla Corii Asini(Ejiao)is an important Chinese medicine used in China for thousands of years, and is well known for its famous tonic properties. The herbalogical study was detailed carried out based on the naming, habitat, harvesting, processing, medicinal properties and clinical efficacy. The results showed that the name of Ejiao could be traced back to Shennong′s Materia Medica, and various names of Lvpi Jiao, Penfu Jiao and Fuzhi Jiao were recorded in other ancient books. In the many intervening centuries, the main materials of Ejiao had been replaced from cow leather before Tang Dynasty to donkey skin in the middle to late Tang Dynasty. This phenomenon could be probably caused by complicated social factors of various periods and different efficacy of Ejiao made by all kinds of raw materials. Ejiao was merely processed with the simple methods before Tang Dynasty, which subsequently improved avariety of methods to enhance the supplementation action. Most importantly, Ejiao has a wide clinic application along with the development of processing theories and methods, which can be found in various Classics, especially in imperial medical case record in Qing Dynasty.

关键词(KeyWords): 阿胶;牛皮胶;驴皮胶;本草考证
Colla Corii Asini(Ejiao);Niupi Jiao;Lvpi Jiao;herbalogical study

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 第六批全国老中医药专家学术经验继承项目(176-2017-XMZC-0166-01);; 广东省自然科学基金项目(2020A151501577)

作者(Authors): 张金聚;张英;孟江;吴孟华;马志国;夏敏;付改玲;曹晖;
ZHANG Jin-ju;ZHANG Ying;MENG Jiang;WU Meng-hua;MA Zhi-guo;XIA Min;FU Gai-ling;CAO Hui;College of Pharmacy, Jinan University/Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), Jinan University, National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Lingnan Resources Branch;School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University;Inner Mongolia Gen-incept Biological Medicine Technology Co., Ltd., National Engineering Research C

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200304.101

参考文献(References):

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