中国中药杂志

2016, v.41(10) 1823-1834

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中国紫苏资源调查和紫苏叶挥发油化学型研究
Perilla resources of China and essential oil chemotypes of Perilla leaves

魏长玲;郭宝林;张琛武;张芬;田景;白晓林;章顺楠;
WEI Chang-ling;GUO Bao-lin;ZHANG Chen-wu;ZHANG Fen;TIAN Jing;BAI Xiao-lin;ZHANG Shun-nan;Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Science,Peking Union Medical College;Shanxi Medical University;Tasly Pharmaceutical Group Co.,Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

该文根据对国内紫苏的主产地区的资源调查结果,按照产出类型先分为野生资源和栽培资源两大类,栽培资源又按主要用途分为栽培药用资源、栽培籽用资源、栽培出口资源。野生资源主产区有河南、四川、安徽、江西、广西、湖南、江苏及浙江;栽培药用资源产区有河北安国、安徽亳州、重庆涪陵、广西玉林和广东茂名;栽培籽用资源产区包括甘肃庆阳、黑龙江桦南、吉林、重庆彭水及云南;栽培出口资源产区有浙江湖州、江苏连云港和山东烟台。对各产区采集的43个紫苏叶样品用采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,GC-MS进行了组成成分分析。43份紫苏叶样品挥发油得率在0.2%~1.5%,挥发油主要包括紫苏酮perillaketone(0.93%~96.55%)、紫苏醛perillaldehyde(0.10%~61.24%)、紫苏烯perillene(52.15%)、石竹烯caryophyllene(3.22%~26.27%)、α-法尼烯α-farnesene(2.10%~21.54%)等31个成份,可分为PK,PA,PP,EK,PL 5个化学型。其中野生资源化学型有PK型和PA型,以PK型居多,栽培药用资源的化学型种类包括了全部5种类型,以PA型居多,栽培籽用资源均为PK型,出口栽培资源均为PA型。紫苏3个变种中,紫苏变种Perilla frutescens var.frutescens包括了5个化学型,以PK型最多,其中PK型主要是绿色叶,PA型为紫色叶或绿色叶,野生紫苏变种P.frutescens var.acuta只有PK,PA型,PK型较PA型多,其中PK型均为绿色叶,PA型为紫色叶,因此无论是野生还是栽培紫苏,以PK和PA型为主流化学型,PK型更多,且与叶色呈现较好的相关性。回回苏变种P.fruteseens var.crispa主要为PA型,两面紫色叶。主流化学型的区分为历代本草区别使用紫色香气的"紫苏"和绿色无香的"白苏"提供了科学依据,基于PK可导致家畜食用后产生肺部毒性,以及紫苏的使用传统,建议紫苏药用限制为紫苏醛型,应建立紫苏叶和紫苏叶油中紫苏醛的检测标准。
This study,based on the findings for Perilla resources,aimed to describe the species,distribution,importance,features,utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development,but also indicates the overall distribution,selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types,Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses,the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources,seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan,Sichuan,Anhui,Jiangxi,Guangxi,Hunan,Jiangsu and Zhejiang.The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei,Anhui,Chongqing,Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu,Heilongjiang,Jilin,Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities,such as Zhejiang,Jiangsu,Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study,the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone( 0. 93%-96. 55%),perillaldehyde( 0. 10%-61. 24%),perillene( 52. 15%),caryophyllene( 3. 22%-26. 67%),and α-farnesene( 2. 10%-21. 54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type,PA-type,PL-type,PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type,with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources,with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type,and export resources are all PA-type. The P. frutescens var. frutescens include five chemotypes,with PK-type as the majority. The PKtype leaves of P. frutescens var. acuta are green,while the PA-type leaves are reddish purple. The P. fruteseens var. crispa was mainly PA type with reddish purple leaves. The differences of the main chemotypes provide a scientific basis for distinguishing between Zisu and Baisu in previous literatures. Based on the lung toxicity of PK and the traditional use of Perilla,the testing standard of essential oil and Perilla herb shall be built,and PA type is recommended to be used in traditional Chinese medicine.

关键词(KeyWords): 紫苏叶;资源调查;挥发油;化学型;分布
Perilla leaf;resource survey;essential oil;chemotype;distribution

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基金项目(Foundation): 中国医学科学院药用植物研究所创新团队发展计划项目

作者(Author): 魏长玲;郭宝林;张琛武;张芬;田景;白晓林;章顺楠;
WEI Chang-ling;GUO Bao-lin;ZHANG Chen-wu;ZHANG Fen;TIAN Jing;BAI Xiao-lin;ZHANG Shun-nan;Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Science,Peking Union Medical College;Shanxi Medical University;Tasly Pharmaceutical Group Co.,Ltd.;

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