中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(09) 1969-1974

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药用植物适应环境胁迫的策略及道地药材“拟境栽培”
Strategies for medicinal plants adapting environmental stress and "simulative habitat cultivation" of Dao-di herbs

郭兰萍;周良云;康传志;王红阳;张文晋;王升;王瑞杉;王晓;韩邦兴;周涛;黄璐琦;
GUO Lan-ping;ZHOU Liang-yun;KANG Chuan-zhi;WANG Hong-yang;ZHANG Wen-jin;WANG Sheng;WANG Rui-shan;WANG Xiao;HAN Bang-xing;ZHOU Tao;HUANG Lu-qi;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Guangdong Pharmaceutical University;Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences);College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, West Anhui University;G

摘要(Abstract):

该文以2015年版《中国药典》所收载的药用植物和藻菌类中药材为主,统计分析其生活型、生境及面临的环境胁迫。①发现自然情况下,只有0.94%的药用植物以大田栽培为主。药用植物最常见的生境分为两大类:一类是自然生境为林缘/林下的药用植物,约有42.53%;另一大类为自然生境在路旁、山坡地、荒地/沙地的药用植物,约有43.78%。前者主要面临的环境胁迫为弱光、病虫害等;后者主要面临的环境胁迫为干旱、强光、紫外辐射、高温、低温(昼夜或年温差大)、养分缺乏、虫害等。②在分析药用植物适应环境胁迫的策略的基础上,指出合成和积累次生代谢产物是药用植物最重要的环境胁迫防御策略。药用植物在长期适应特定胁迫的过程中,不断积累相关遗传及表观遗传变异,成为其品质形成的重要条件。③认为道地药材"拟境栽培"在平衡中药材生长发育和次生代谢产物积累,保障中药材质量方面的优势明显,提出在没有更多研究实践及特殊生产目的的前提下,道地药材"拟境栽培"可作为中药材高产优质生产的基本模式。
This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

关键词(KeyWords): 环境胁迫;拟境栽培;道地药材;生态农业;生态种植
environmental stress;simulative habitat cultivation;Dao-di herbs;ecological agriculture;ecological planting

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1700701);; 国家自然科学基金重大项目(81891014);; 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-21)

作者(Author): 郭兰萍;周良云;康传志;王红阳;张文晋;王升;王瑞杉;王晓;韩邦兴;周涛;黄璐琦;
GUO Lan-ping;ZHOU Liang-yun;KANG Chuan-zhi;WANG Hong-yang;ZHANG Wen-jin;WANG Sheng;WANG Rui-shan;WANG Xiao;HAN Bang-xing;ZHOU Tao;HUANG Lu-qi;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Guangdong Pharmaceutical University;Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences);College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, West Anhui University;G

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200302.101

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