中国中药杂志

2018, v.43(02) 242-247

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中药材二氧化硫限量标准及残留现状探讨
Sulfur dioxide limit standard and residues in Chinese medicinal materials

康传志;杨婉珍;莫歌;周利;蒋靖怡;吕朝耕;王升;周涛;杨野;郭兰萍;
KANG Chuan-zhi;YANG Wan-zhen;MO Ge;ZHOU Li;JIANG Jing-yi;LV Chao-geng;WANG Sheng;ZHOU Tao;YANG Ye;GUO Lan-ping;State Key Laboratory and Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Tibetan Traditional Medical College;Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Kunming University of Science and Technology;

摘要(Abstract):

传统的硫磺熏蒸加工方法由于其经济简便、可操作性强,防霉防虫等特点被广泛应用于药材初加工和仓储等环节。但是过度硫磺熏蒸会造成药材化学成分发生量变或质变,甚至危害人体健康。调查发现,中药材硫磺熏蒸方式主要是待药材采收后直接熏蒸以快速干燥,或者在贮藏过程中将干药材润湿后再熏蒸以防霉防虫。比较二氧化硫限量标准发现,中药材二氧化硫限量标准要比食品中的限量标准严苛得多。基于现有限量标准,统计得到了35种中药材共计862批药材的二氧化硫残留情况,按照中国药典限量标准(150,400 mg·kg~(-1))计算得到平均超标率高达52.43%。若按照食品添加剂法典标准中蔬菜的限量值计算(500 mg·kg~(-1)),则平均超标率降为29.47%。作者认为应正确看待硫磺熏蒸问题:相比于黄曲霉素等高毒物质来说,二氧化硫属于低毒物质,甚至它是一种合法的食品添加剂。但硫熏可能会改变中药材化学成分含量,从而影响中药材质量;毒性物质的暴露危害与暴露周期、暴露频次、使用方法等综合因素有关。建议加强中药材二氧化硫限量标准研究,制定切实可行,既符合中药材用药特点,又能保障人民安全用药需要的中药材二氧化硫残留限量标准。
The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy,efficiency,convenience,high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention.However,excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions,and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying,or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards,we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 150,400 mg·kg~(-1)),the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52. 43 %,but it was reduced to 29. 47 % if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard( 500 mg·kg~(-1)). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances,and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.However,sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore,the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle,exposure frequency,and application method. In conclusion,it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials that are consistent with the medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and can guarantee people' s demand for safe medication.

关键词(KeyWords): 硫磺熏蒸;二氧化硫残留;限量标准;质量;建议
sulfur fumigation;sulfur dioxide residue;limit standard;quality;suggestion

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(81325023,81473307);; 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1700701);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 发改委标准化项目(ZYBZH-C-HLJ-17);; 中国中医科学院博士研究生创新人才培养基金项目(CX201705);; 云南省科技计划项目(2017 ZF014)

作者(Author): 康传志;杨婉珍;莫歌;周利;蒋靖怡;吕朝耕;王升;周涛;杨野;郭兰萍;
KANG Chuan-zhi;YANG Wan-zhen;MO Ge;ZHOU Li;JIANG Jing-yi;LV Chao-geng;WANG Sheng;ZHOU Tao;YANG Ye;GUO Lan-ping;State Key Laboratory and Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Tibetan Traditional Medical College;Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Kunming University of Science and Technology;

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20171023.002

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