中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(20) 4812-4818

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中药材分子标记辅助育种技术研究进展
Study progress on molecular marker-assisted breeding of Chinese medicinal materials

钱润;周骏辉;杨健;黄璐琦;袁媛;
QIAN Run;ZHOU Jun-hui;YANG Jian;HUANG Lu-qi;YUAN Yuan;School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Daodi Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

摘要(Abstract):

分子标记辅助育种是通过将现代分子生物学与传统遗传育种相结合,培育中药材优良种质的重要方法之一,其育种的主要目标是使中药材的生物学性状稳定、产量和药用成分可控,所生产的药材具有"优形、优质、优效"特征。相对于传统选育偏重于表型性状选择,分子标记辅助育种还注重基因型的筛选,其主要包括分子遗传连锁图谱构建、数量性状位点(QTL)定位、遗传多样性研究、品种与杂交种质纯度鉴定、分子标记辅助选择应用等5个领域。目前在中药材分子标记辅助育种研究中主要采用的DNA分子标记为SCoT,ISSR,SSR,SNP等。随着高通量测序技术的快速发展,全基因组关联分析(GWAS)、分子设计育种将成为未来中药材育种的热点。该文系统综述了利用分子标记辅助育种开展中药材优良种质选育研究的现状,并对未来发展前景进行展望,提出了利用分子生药学理论和方法加快中药材品种选育的建议,以期为中药材育种、中药资源保护及可持续利用等工作提供理论指导。
The molecular marker-assisted breeding is one of the important methods to cultivate excellent germplasms of Chinese medicinal materials by combining modern molecular biology with traditional genetic breeding. The main target of breeding is to make the biological characters of Chinese medicinal materials stable and the yield and medicinal component of it controllable, and ensure that the medicinal materials produced have the characteristics of "excellent shape, high quality and high effect". Compared with traditional breeding that prefers to the selection of phenotypic traits, the molecular marker-assisted breeding also emphasizes genotype screening. It mainly includes five fields, namely the construction of genetic linkage maps, the positioning of quantitative trait locus(QTL), the analysis of genetic diversities, the identification of varieties and hybrid germplasm purity, and the application of molecular marker-assisted selection. At present, SCoT, ISSR, SSR and SNP are the main DNA markers used in the studies of marker-assisted breeding of Chinese medicinal materials. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology, genome-wide association(GWAS) and molecular design breeding will become the hotspots of Chinese medicinal materials breeding in the future. In this paper, we review current studies excellent germplasm selection of Chinese medicinal materials using molecular marker-assisted breeding and future development prospects. It is suggested to accelerate the breeding of traditional Chinese medicinal materials using molecular pharmacognosy theory and methods, in order to provide theoretical guidance for breeding, protection and sustainable utilization of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

关键词(KeyWords): 中药材;分子标记辅助育种;全基因组关联分析(GWAS);分子设计育种
Chinese medicinal materials;molecular marker-assisted breeding;genome-wide association study(GWAS);molecular design breeding

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金重大项目(81891013);; 中央本级重大增减支项目(2060302);; 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(ZZ10-008)

作者(Author): 钱润;周骏辉;杨健;黄璐琦;袁媛;
QIAN Run;ZHOU Jun-hui;YANG Jian;HUANG Lu-qi;YUAN Yuan;School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine;State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Daodi Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200710.602

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