中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(07) 1536-1544

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泽泻的本草考证、原植物调查及DNA条形码鉴定研究
Herbal textural research, morphologic characteristics and DNA barcoding of botanical origins of Alismatis Rhizoma

刘珊珊;魏守辉;朱晶晶;张文文;焦森;郭杰;闫利华;王智民;
LIU Shan-shan;WEI Shou-hui;ZHU Jing-jing;ZHANG Wen-wen;JIAO Sen;GUO Jie;YAN Li-hua;WANG Zhi-min;National Engineering Laboratory for Quality Control Technology of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis;Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;

摘要(Abstract):

泽泻为常用中药,目前我国的商品泽泻主要有"建泽泻"(福建泽泻、江西泽泻)、"川泽泻"(四川泽泻)和"广泽泻"(广西泽泻)。《中国药典》曾分别收载泽泻科植物泽泻Alisma plantago-aquatica和泽泻A.orientale作为泽泻药材的基原。不同商品泽泻的原植物是否相同、是哪种,是长期以来有争议的问题。该研究的目的是明确不同商品泽泻的植物来源,为2020年版《中国药典》中泽泻来源项的修订提供参考依据。作者对古代本草文献中泽泻的原植物形态、分布等资料进行了梳理;到产地进行原植物调查,收集代表性原植物的花、果实与泽泻和东方泽泻的分类特征进行比较;对不同产地的典型药材进行性状比较;对3个主产区8个种植区域的39份泽泻叶片进行DNA条形码分析。结果表明,基于泽泻和东方泽泻在花、果实等植物形态特征上的差别及ITS2序列中第247位的碱基差异(A/T),可对不同产地泽泻的原植物进行区分。商品"建泽泻"的主要原植物为东方泽泻,"川泽泻"和"广泽泻"的主要原植物为泽泻。经过本草考证、植物形态特征对比及DNA条形码鉴定并结合目前商品泽泻的实际情况,建议2020年版《中国药典》中泽泻的来源项修订为"泽泻科植物东方泽泻Alisma orientale(Sam.) Juzep.或泽泻Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn.的干燥块茎"。
Alismatis Rhizoma(Zexie) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, and it is separated into "Chuan Zexie"(Sichuan and Hubei provinces), "Jian Zexie"(Fujian and Jiangxi provinces) and "Guang Zexie"(Guangxi province) according to different producing areas. Alisma plantago-aquatica and A. orientale were listed as the original plants of Alismatis Rhizoma in different editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(Ch.P), respectively. The botanical origins of Alismatis Rhizoma caused much controversy during a period of time. This study aimed to define the botanical origins of Alismatis Rhizoma from different producing areas, and supply scientific evidence for Ch. P 2020 edition. In this paper, we summarized the descriptions of original plants and producing areas of Alismatis Rhizoma in ancient literatures. Flowers and fruits of original plants of Alismatis Rhizoma were collected from different typical areas, and compared with the morphological description of two species from Alisma genus in the Flora of China. Thirty-nine batches of leaves from 8 different areas were identified using DNA barcoding technology. The results showed that original plants of Alismatis Rhizoma from different areas could be distinguished from each other based on morphological characteristics and molecular characteristics. Then, "Jian Zexie" was identified as A. orientale, while "Chuan Zexie" and "Guang Zexie" were identified as A. plantago-aquatica. In conclusion, combining with herbal textural research, morphologic characteristics, DNA barcoding technology and market situation, this paper recommended that the botanical sources of Alismatis Rhizoma could be revised as Alisma orientale(Sam.) Juzep. and Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn. in the Ch. P 2020 edition.

关键词(KeyWords): 泽泻;本草考证;植物形态;药材性状;DNA条形码;ITS2
Alismatis Rhizoma;herbal textural research;morphologic characteristics;macroscopic characters;DNA barcoding;ITS2

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家药典委员会标准制修订研究课题(2018Z079);; 国家中药标准化项目(ZYBZH-C-JL-24)

作者(Authors): 刘珊珊;魏守辉;朱晶晶;张文文;焦森;郭杰;闫利华;王智民;
LIU Shan-shan;WEI Shou-hui;ZHU Jing-jing;ZHANG Wen-wen;JIAO Sen;GUO Jie;YAN Li-hua;WANG Zhi-min;National Engineering Laboratory for Quality Control Technology of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences;Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis;Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200318.201

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