中国中药杂志

2011, v.36(24) 3410-3415

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夏枯草氮、磷、钾吸收分配特征及其干物质积累研究
Absorption and allocation of nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium in Prunella vulgaris and their relationship to dry matter accumulation

陈宇航;刘丽;郭巧生;王澄亚;
CHEN Yuhang1,LIU Li1,GUO Qiaosheng1,WANG Chengya2 (1.Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095,China; 2.Guangzhou Xingqun Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.,Guangzhou 510288,China)

摘要(Abstract):

目的:研究夏枯草干物质积累及其氮、磷、钾吸收分配特性,以期为夏枯草科学施肥技术的建立提供理论依据。方法:夏枯草不同生长时期进行动态采样,测定全株与各器官生物量及其氮、磷、钾含量。结果:夏枯草植株干物质积累量与氮、磷、钾吸收积累量呈线性增加趋势,相关系数均达显著水平。4月中旬至5月上旬植株干物质阶段积累率最高,达63.71%。3月下旬至4月中旬植株干物质主要分配在叶中;5月上旬至5月下旬茎中干物质分配率最高;至6月中旬,果穗干物质分配率最大。4月中旬前,植株对氮磷钾吸收积累量较少,各营养元素主要集中于叶片;4月下旬至5月上旬,氮磷钾吸收积累量均占整个生长期最大,分别为72.35%,59.82%,87.41%,此期营养元素主要集中于茎中;转入生殖生长期(即5月上旬后),果穗中营养元素积累量及分配率逐渐增大,并于6月中旬均达最高值。整个生长期以拔节期至现蕾期(即4月中旬至5月上旬),为夏枯草植株干物质积累量最大期,同时也是氮、磷、钾最大效率期。结论:拔节期至现蕾期(即4月中旬至5月上旬)为夏枯草植株生长发育最关键时期,期间需注意田间水肥调控,以促进植株顶端现蕾与干物质积累。每生产100 kg夏枯草果穗,需吸收1.62 kg N,0.36 kg P2O5,2.88 kg K2O,各养分间吸收比例N-P2O5-K2O为1∶0.22∶1.77。
Objective: The accumulation of dry matter,nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in Prunella vulgaris and their relationships under field condition were studied,in order to provide a basis for the rational fertilization.Method: Through the dynamic sampling of P.vulgaris in different growing stages,and the dry weight of plant,the amount of dry matter and the content of N,P and K within each organ of the plant were measured.Result: The dry weight of P.vulgaris linearly increased with the increase of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium accumulation,there existed a significant correlation at whole growth period.The maximum stage accumulation rate of dry matter from mid-April to the beginning of May,reached 63.71%.The amount of dry matter was mainly distribution in leaves from late March to mid-April.The distribution ratio in stem was the highest from beginning of May to late May.Until mid-June,the distribution ratio of dry matter in spicas was higher than that in other organs.The absorption amounts of N,P and K were lower before mid-April,and the nutrient element was concentrated in plant leaves.From late April to beginning of May,the N,P and K accumulation reached maximum of total absorptive capacity,which accounted for 72.35%,59.82%,87.41%,respectively,and the mineral elements were concentrated distribution of plant stems.When transferred to reproductive stage,both accumulation amount and distribution rate of nutrient elements in spicas increased rapidly,which reached the maximum until mid-June.From elongation stages to quaring period was the period of maximal accumulation of dry matter and showed the maximal efficiency of N,P and K nutrition.Conclusion: The time from elongation stages to quaring period is the most crucial period in the growth development stage of P.vulgaris,and should be paid more attention to the supply of mineral nutrition and moisture of plant to promote spicas formation and dry matter accumulation in this stage.The average N,P2O5and K2O absorption amount per 100 kg dry matter of spicas were 1.62,0.36,2.88 kg respectively,and the ratio of N-P2O5-K2O was 1∶0.22∶1.77.

关键词(KeyWords): 夏枯草;干物质积累;氮、磷、钾
Prunella vulgaris;dry matter accumulation;nitrogen;phosphorus;potassium

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金项目(30772730,81072986);; 国家“重大新药创制”科技重大专项(2009ZX09308-002)

作者(Author): 陈宇航;刘丽;郭巧生;王澄亚;
CHEN Yuhang1,LIU Li1,GUO Qiaosheng1,WANG Chengya2 (1.Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095,China; 2.Guangzhou Xingqun Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.,Guangzhou 510288,China)

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