中国中药杂志

2015, v.40(10) 2047-2049

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藏药曲玛孜的文献查考
Textual research for Tibetan medicine Qumazi

罗武政;李啟恩;陈静;多杰仁青;陶丝雨;施金钹;徐颖洲;闫兴丽;
LUO Wu-zheng;LI Qi-en;CHEN Jing;DOR Jerenchen;TAO Si-yu;SHI Jin-bo;XU Ying-zhou;YAN Xing-li;School of Basic Medical Sciences,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine;School of Life Sciences,Lanzhou University;Tibet Traditional Medical College;School of Chinese Materia Medica,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine;

摘要(Abstract):

藏药曲玛孜为藏医常用药,用药历史悠久,早在公元8世纪宇妥·元丹贡布所著的《四部医典》里已有应用记载。曲玛孜生长在泥滩和田间,有高山、低地、山地、田生多种,《晶珠本草》记载其植物形态为"叶青色,剑状,茎有红色脉纹,穗镶形;茎细,花象白鸡蹲架,根象铜针并排"。但在较多汉文版藏医药书籍中,曲玛孜的植物形态描述有不一致,存在一物多名和多物一名的现象。本文通过对古代、现代藏医药文献中的考究,结合专家咨询和走访调研,证实曲玛孜藏药品种来源应该为蓼科大黄属的一类植物,它们是塔黄、小大黄、水黄、头序大黄、白小黄等植物,也有地区将穗序大黄、歧穗大黄作为曲玛孜代用品;在1972年出版的汉文版《青藏高原药物图鉴》以后,许多汉文版藏医书籍将西伯利亚蓼作为藏药曲玛孜,这可能是因为西伯利亚蓼植物形态与《晶珠本草》记载的"生长在泥滩和田间,叶青色,剑状,茎有红色脉纹,穗镶形"相似,在藏文翻译为汉文过程中的误译而导致的误用。根据记载,曲玛孜具有泻"黄水",消水肿之功效,临床主要用于治疗"水病"。
Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history,it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by g Yu-thog r Nying-ma Yon-tan m Gon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields,including species growing in highlands,lowlands,mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica,it features green sword-shaped leaves,thin stems with red veins,inserted panicles,white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However,there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article,after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books,consulting experts and conducting surveys,the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae,including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms,R. globulosum Gage,R. alexandrae Hook. f. et.Thoms,R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions,Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972,Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books,perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records,Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic.

关键词(KeyWords): 曲玛孜;大黄属;塔黄;西伯利亚蓼
Qumazi;Rheum;Rheum nobile Hook.f.et Thoms;Polygonum sibiricum Laxm

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 北京中医药大学自主选题(藏医药类课题)(2013-ZYY-03);; 北京中医药大学校级自主课题(2014-JYBZZ-XS-022)

作者(Author): 罗武政;李啟恩;陈静;多杰仁青;陶丝雨;施金钹;徐颖洲;闫兴丽;
LUO Wu-zheng;LI Qi-en;CHEN Jing;DOR Jerenchen;TAO Si-yu;SHI Jin-bo;XU Ying-zhou;YAN Xing-li;School of Basic Medical Sciences,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine;School of Life Sciences,Lanzhou University;Tibet Traditional Medical College;School of Chinese Materia Medica,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine;

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