中国中药杂志

2020, v.45(19) 4598-4605

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基于药材品质的山东西洋参主产区栽培地土壤肥力质量评价
Quality-based soil fertility quality assessment of American ginseng main production areas in Shandong province

李俊飞;焦晓林;毕艳孟;邵慧慧;张西梅;高微微;
LI Jun-fei;JIAO Xiao-lin;BI Yan-meng;SHAO Hui-hui;ZHANG Xi-mei;GAO Wei-wei;Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College;

摘要(Abstract):

土壤肥力质量代表土壤生产力的综合能力,是中药材优质高效栽培生产的保证。该研究通过建立西洋参栽培土壤肥力质量的定量评价方法,探讨高品质西洋参生产的土壤肥力基础,了解产区土壤肥力的分布情况。以山东威海文登西洋参主产区的22块四年生西洋参栽培地为样地,于2017—2019年秋季采集并测定了11项土壤化学指标,以及样地上西洋参皂苷含量和部分地块的产量。采用主成分分析结合相关性分析方法构建土壤肥力质量评价指标的最小数据集(MDS),用隶属度函数进行指标归一化,根据各指标权重和隶属度函数的临界值计算综合土壤质量指数(SQI),用以表征土壤肥力质量水平。结果表明,样地的西洋参总皂苷(Rg_1+Re+Rb_1)质量分数为1.76%~7.94%;2019年测产的8块样地产量为3 818.7~8 996.4 kg·hm~(-2);基于西洋参品质的MDS包括:有机质、碱解氮、交换性钙、交换性镁、有效铁、有效铜、有效锌等7个指标;以总皂苷平均值为4.825%得出基于质量的SQI阈值为0.15,样地中高于0.15的地块占86.36%。以上建立的方法可以用于高品质西洋参种植地的选择,并作为合理施肥的理论依据;也为其他药用植物栽培土壤肥力质量评价提供方法学借鉴。
The soil fertility quality is one of the most critical indicators of soil productivity. It directly affects the yield, quality and agricultural efficiency of Chinese medicinal materials. In order to establish the American ginseng planting soil fertility quality evaluation method based on the effective components of American ginseng, Wendeng district, Weihai city, Shandong province, the main producing area of American ginseng, was cited as a case for the study. Twenty-two 4-years American ginseng sampling sites are located at 7 towns. The samples of soil and plant root were collected in the autumn of 2017—2019. The saponin contents of American ginseng and 11 soil chemical properties were measured. The minimum data set(MDS) for assessment of the quality of soil fertility quality was established by correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The evaluation indexes were normalized by membership function. Soil quality index(SQI) that indicates soil comprehensive fertility quality level was calculated according to the critical value of membership function and weight value of each soil index in MDS. The results showed that the total saponin(Rg_1+Re+Rb_1) content of American ginseng in samples ranged from 1.76% to 7.94%. The yield of 8 plots in 2019 ranged from 3 818.7 kg·hm~(-2) to 8 996.4 kg·hm~(-2). MDS includes organic matter, alkaline nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, effective iron, effective copper, and effective zinc. Based on the mean of 4.825% of total saponin, threshold value of SQI for the region was determined to be 0.15, and 86.36% of soil samples in the county were above the threshold value. The methods and parameters are applicable to selection of high quality American ginseng planting sites and guiding rational fertilization. It also provides a reference for the evaluation of soil fertility quality of other medicinal plants.

关键词(KeyWords): 西洋参;皂苷含量;最小数据集;隶属度函数;土壤肥力质量;文登区
American ginseng;saponin content;minimum data set;membership function;soil fertility quality;Wendeng district

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 中国医学科学院医学与健康科技创新工程项目(2016-I2M-1-012);; 国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY111500-044);; 山东省重点研发计划(重大科技创新工程)项目(2019JZZY020905)

作者(Author): 李俊飞;焦晓林;毕艳孟;邵慧慧;张西梅;高微微;
LI Jun-fei;JIAO Xiao-lin;BI Yan-meng;SHAO Hui-hui;ZHANG Xi-mei;GAO Wei-wei;Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College;

Email:

DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190725.101

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