中国中药杂志

2021, v.46(03) 736-744

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橘红与化橘红的古今演变探析
Herbalogical study on historical evolution of Juhong and Huajuhong

吴孟华;钟楚楚;余品皓;李锋;张英;马志国;曹晖;
WU Meng-hua;ZHONG Chu-chu;YU Pin-hao;LI Feng;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), Lingnan Branch of National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University College of Pharmacy;Huazhou Pummelo Peel Medical Materials Development Co., Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

古代橘红药材有橘类橘红和柚类橘红2种,分别对应《中国药典》收载的橘红和化橘红。纵观历代本草,不同时期橘红的品种与入药部位同中有异。该文以朝代为脉络,对本草所载橘红相关内容进行梳理,在谢宗万先生"药材品种延续论"与"药材品种变迁论"的指导下,结合实地调研,探析橘红来源品种和药用部位的演变与原因。东汉及以前,橘柚并用,以皮入药;南北朝时期,橘皮的使用方法即为取陈者"汤浸去穰",已具备橘红使用外层果皮入药的实质,来源品种为橘Citrus reticalata;宋代出现橘红的名称和入药记载,品种和部位延续前朝,并出现不去穰的使用方式,称为"陈皮";橘红在本草中单列始于明《本草汇言》,明代各本草均以广东为橘红的道地产地,结合地方志推测其来源既有橘,又有化州柚C.grandis‘Tomentosa’;清代和民国时期橘红来源品种为橘和化州柚,以后者为最优,仍以外层果皮入药,民国化州柚药用部位新增原个幼果。1949后,柚C.grandis与橘、化州柚的外层果皮一并被《中国药典》收录在橘红药材下。自南北朝至民国时期,柚皮均为橘红的伪品,故现《中国药典》化橘红来源收载的柚的外层果皮与历史记载相悖。1985年版起《中国药典》始分橘红和化橘红2种,化橘红仅用化州柚和柚未成熟或近成熟果实的外层果皮,未收载现化橘红商品主流的化州柚幼果。考证结果有助于理清橘红与化橘红品种和药用部位的历史演变脉络,由此建议下一版《中国药典》收录化橘红的品种仅用化州柚,删除柚,药用部位在未成熟或近成熟果实的外层果皮基础上新增幼果。
In ancient times, there were two types of "Juhong" came from the tangerines(Citrus reticulata) and the pomelos(C. grandis and its cultivars), which corresponded to Juhong and Huajuhong recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia respectively. In different periods, Juhong basically came from the same species and the same medicinal parts, but there were also some differences. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature, under the guidance of "Succession theory of Medicinal materials varieties" and "Change theory of Medicinal materials varieties"(XIE Zong-wan), and combined with field investigation, the evolution and reasons of the original plants and medicinal parts of Juhong were analyzed. In the Han Dynasty and before, the peel of tangerines and pomelos were both used as medicine. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the way tangerine peel was used was dried and aged, and then "soaked in hot water and scraped off the mesocarp", which had the essence of only using exocarp as medicine of Juhong already, and its original plant was C. reticalata. In the Song Dynasty, the name of "Juhong" and its medicinal usage were recorded in book on materia medica, and the species and medicinal parts of tangerine were inherited from the previous dynasties. The way tangerine peel was used was only dried and aged without removing the mesocarp. The medicinal material obtained by the way was called Chenpi(dried and aged tangerine peel). The item "Juhong" listing as a separate medicinal material was first recorded in the Collected Discussions from Materia Medica(Bencao Huiyan) in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the Dao-di habitat of Juhong was recorded as Guangdong province in most books on materia medica, and the original plants probably were C. reticalata and C. grandis ′Tomentosa′(Huazhou pomelo, a special cultivated species of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong, which was recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as "Huajuhong"), according to the records in the local chronicles. During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the original plants of Juhong were C. reticalata and C. grandis ′Tomentosa′. Of the two, the latter one was considered as the better. As far the medicinal part, it was still the exocarp, while the whole young fruit of C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ began to be used as medicine. After the founding of The People′s Republic of China, the exocarps of Citrus reticalata, C. grandis and C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ were listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia under "Juhong". From the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Republic of China, C. grandis exocarp was a fake of Juhong. Therefore, it was contradictory to historical records that C. grandis exocarp was listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as Huajuhong. Juhong had been divided into two types as "Juhong" and "Huajuhong" since 1985. The medicinal part of Huajuhong was only the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruits, but not the whole young fruit, the actual mainstream medicinal part of Huajuhong. The results are helpful to clarify the historical evolution of species and medicinal parts of Juhong and Huajuhong. It is suggested that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis ′Tomentosa′ should be included as the original plant of Huajuhong, and C. grandis should be deleted, and the young fruit should be added in the medicinal parts besides the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruit.

关键词(KeyWords): 橘红;化橘红;化州柚;品种延续;品种变迁;药用部位;考证
Juhong;Huajuhong;Citrus grandis ′Tomentosa′;succession theory of medicinal materials varieties;change theory of medicinal materials varieties;medicinal part;herbalogical study

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFC1711500);; 第六批全国老中医药专家学术经验继承项目(176-2017-XMZC-0166-01);; 广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2020B1111110005)

作者(Author): 吴孟华;钟楚楚;余品皓;李锋;张英;马志国;曹晖;
WU Meng-hua;ZHONG Chu-chu;YU Pin-hao;LI Feng;ZHANG Ying;MA Zhi-guo;CAO Hui;Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Lingnan(Southern China), Lingnan Branch of National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University College of Pharmacy;Huazhou Pummelo Peel Medical Materials Development Co., Ltd.;

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DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201121.101

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